Tag Archives: Marburg

Suspected Ebola Infected are Being Released from Hospitals

This Morning a Hospital in Santa Fe New Mexico released a patient who was exhibiting symptoms of EBOLA.

The reason given for this was the Individual had not traveled, nor been in contact with anyone who had traveled to West Africa (As far as they knew.).

That was the Only Reason given for their release.

Well, no worries then.

Although this assumes one must have traveled to, or been in contact with someone who had traveled to, West Africa recently.

Thus this assumes no intent regarding the spread of this virus or any one of the Hemorrhagic variants.

This assumes Bad Guys, like the myriad of Terrorist A-Holes, are not actively working to kill us. Or… they’re not trying to simply overwhelm our Medical System and/or create General Panic here on US soil.

I am of the camp that Panic is futile. But Concern tempered with a little Fear has no downside.

I also believe that there are people out there who want us dead for no other reason than we are currently not so.

So I ask…

Wouldn’t Prudence dictate that individuals infected with anything close to this disease be watched a little more closely and at least quarantined for the couple of weeks necessary to see what happens? Couldn’t this be set up somewhere outside of the hospital? Make it fun even? Somehow I suspect one’s employer would approve of a couple of weeks AWAY from work to be stationed in a hotel in which you can not leave because YOU MIGHT HAVE A RAPIDLY FATAL COMMUNICABLE DISEASE which Health Professionals are now suspecting is ready to ‘Go Airborne’.

Or may be not.

We all know Rich, Greedy, Self Absorbed Leaders don’t care about those under them. And since they’re always on the Golf Course… they’ll never get it.  And clearly They don’t… get it.

Just a thought.

Oh… and the Borders are still Open with Floods of Medically Unscreened Illegal Immigrants arriving here by the minute. And Children are Dying as I tap this out from the highly communicable disease Enterovirus D68.

Oh… and for some reason this Administration will not decouple Arriving and Departing flights in order to restrict ARRIVING flights from West Africa.  In other words, the idea of allowing the best and brightest Medical Folks to go for the moment, with the understanding they don’t get to come back for a while, is completely out of the question.

It seems to me, just like defending our Diplomats Overseas, all of this appears to have never before been thought about by this current group of Ostriches occupying the highest offices.

As a Reminder,

The country is 238 years old… We have been dealing with Ebola since it was classified in 1976. We have experienced pandemics like the Spanish Flu 100-years ago which killed over 675,000 Americans. And, just like leaving our Diplomats to Die in Benghazi, it’s like we’ve never encountered such dangers and we’re learning as we go.

The Official position to everything over the last 6-years has been “Who knew it could get this Bad?”

I guess you can’t blame them if this is all new.  How Could they know?  Right?

So never mind.

Cheer up, If it goes South it will be your fault.


Xenophobia

If you don’t already… you will need to know this word.

xenophobia
[ ˌzēnəˈfōbēə, ˌzenə- ]

noun

intense or irrational dislike or fear of people from other countries.
Get ready to be accused of an intense hatred of those from other countries.  It’s coming to a bunch of stories near you.
Why?
Because You’re a Horrible Xenophobe.
Sure your concern about open borders and sophomoric screening of those few who come here legally is based entirely on your health.
Sure you could be so self-centered as to think Rapidly Fatal Diseases flooding into our Country and infecting your children is not a good idea.
And sure you might believe that the access of those who could be infected with such Diseases should be Extremely Limited, if not Halted, until we can get a handle on how we’re going to address these demonstrably Life Destroying Microbes.
All Hogwash!
Truth is, You’re just a Bigot who Hates.  You’re simply using the Lives of Your Children, Family, Friends and Neighbors as an Excuse to behave the way you have Always wanted to.  And that way is to Discriminate against other people who are different.  It doesn’t matter that ‘different’ means infected with a highly contagious, and constantly mutating, form of virus that causes epidemic levels of death.  No… the truth is, you’re a Xenophobe, as well as a Homophobe (if you forgot) and most certainly a Racist.
I’m glad we could get that out-of-the-way.  We all realize Honesty is the best policy.  And we all also know your supposed Fear is only a disguise for your inner drive to be a POS.
So… when your child comes home from school and says a couple of her classmates were taken to the nurses office because they were throwing up blood all over the Mrs. Giacomo’s Class during first period home room… you should remember that it’s no big deal.  Even when it happens again… and again…  Or when little Joey says his best friend has a cough that sounds like the Sea Lion he saw on the Zoo field trip, and it wont stop, so Joey ate his friend’s well coughed on lunch because Ms. Podesta said not to worry, it’s OK.  Just let it go.
And… when you go to the voting booth in few weeks to re-elect your favorite Democrat or Select Republican, who cares more about everything just like you, you should feel good because it was Your Guy who refused to secure the borders as a Demonstration of Their Tolerance and Love of All People … and it was the same Group who currently considers asking individuals coming into the United States from Countries infected with these diseases “Do you have Ebola?” to be ‘highly effective screening measures’ insured to protect you.  Plus, lest you forget, Their Liberal Progressive brilliance Forced Obama Care upon all of us, so now your Insurance Company has had to raise their rates, as well as their deductibles, and or leave your state altogether.  Oh, and you have a new Doctor… who you don’t know… and you can’t get in to see.
Nothing supports sound sleep like knowing the people you support are the Smartest People in the Room… just like you.  And They’re telling you not to worry.
Therefore… You’re not worried.
Because… you recognize Any other behavior would just illustrate an innate bigotry.  This is especially true if you’re White.  Because White People are born that way.  White Devils.
Feel better now that you know the truth that you’re a Racist Xenophobic Hater?
Good.
Oh, and I hear Rum is particularly good at killing Ebola.  You just have to drink a lot of it.  Rubbing it all over your body could help too.
Well… at least that’s what I’m going with.

(As a Note:  I’m not sure what you call someone who discriminates against a person with Ebola… or Pertussis, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Hemorrhagic Fever, Listeria, Lice, An Ax, Who is Covered in Blood, Has a Chainsaw and a mask made of Human Skin, Is Pointing a Gun at You and yelling to everyone that can hear them that they want to kill you… or Zombies… But it would Probably still make you a Xenophobic Hater.  I suggest the Rum.)


The Marburg Virus?

FYI…

Courtesy of Wiki… and H/T to Socialism is not the Answer

Marburg virus

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Marburgvirus
Marburg virus.jpg
Transmission electron micrograph of the Marburgvirus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filoviridae
Genus: Marburgvirus
Type species
Marburg virus

Marburgvirus (/ˈmɑrbərɡ ˈvrəs/ MAR-bərg VY-rəs[1]) is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses, first noticed and described during small epidemics in the German cities Marburg and Frankfurt and the Yugoslav capital Belgrade in the 1960s. Workers were accidentally exposed to tissues of infected grivets (Chlorocebus aethiops) at the city’s former main industrial plant, the Behringwerke, then part of Hoechst, and today of CSL Behring. During these outbreaks, 31 people became infected and seven of them died. Marburg virus (MARV) causes severe disease in humans and nonhuman primates in the form of viral hemorrhagic fever. MARV is a Select Agent,[2] WHO Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring biosafety level 4-equivalent containment),[3] NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen,[4] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent,[5] and is listed as a biological agent for export control by the Australia Group.[6]

Use of term[edit]

Marburg virus was first described in 1967.[7] Today, the virus is one of two members of the species Marburg marburgvirus, which is included in the genus Marburgvirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The name Marburg virus is derived from Marburg (the city in Hesse, Germany, where the virus was first discovered) and the taxonomic suffix virus.[1]

Note[edit]

According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Marburg virus is always to be capitalized, but is never italicized, and may be abbreviated (with MARV being the official abbreviation).

Previous designations[edit]

Marburg virus was first introduced under this name in 1967.[7] In 2005, the virus name was changed to Lake Victoria marburgvirus, which unfortunately was the same spelling as its species Lake Victoria marburgvirus.[8][9] However, most scientific articles continued to refer to Marburg virus. Consequently, in 2010, the name Marburg virus was reinstated and the species name changed.[1] A previous abbreviation for the virus was MBGV.

Virus inclusion criteria[edit]

A virus that fulfills the criteria for being a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus is a Marburg virus if its genome diverges from that of the prototype Marburg marburgvirus, Marburg virus variant Musoke (MARV/Mus), by <10% at the nucleotide level.[1]

Disease[edit]

Main article: Marburg virus disease

MARV is one of two marburgviruses that causes Marburg virus disease (MVD) in humans (in the literature also often referred to as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, MHF). In the past, MARV has caused the following MVD outbreaks:

Marburg virus disease (MVD) outbreaks due to Marburg virus (MARV) infection
Year Geographic location Human Deaths/Cases (case-fatality rate)
1967 Marburg and Frankfurt, West Germany, and Belgrade, Yugoslavia 7/31 (23%)[7][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
1975 Rhodesia and Johannesburg, South Africa 1/3 (33%)[17][18][19]
1980 Kenya 1/2 (50%)[20]
1987 Kenya 1/1 (100%)[21][22]
1988 Koltsovo, Soviet Union 1/1 (100%) [laboratory accident][23]
1990 Koltsovo, Soviet Union 0/1 (0%) [laboratory accident][24]
1998–2000 Durba and Watsa, Democratic Republic of the Congo  ? (A total of 154 cases and 128 deaths of marburgvirus infection were recorded during this outbreak. The case fatality was 83%. Two different marburgviruses, MARV and Ravn virus (RAVV), cocirculated and caused disease. It has never been published how many cases and deaths were due to MARV or RAVV infection)[25][26][27]
2004–2005 Angola 227/252 (90%)[28][29][30][31][32][33][34]
2007 Uganda 1/3 (33%)[35][36]
2008 Uganda, Netherlands 1/1 (100%)[37]
2012 Uganda 9/18 (50%)[38]

Virology[edit]

Genome[edit]

Like all mononegaviruses, marburgvirions contain non-infectious, linear nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA genomes of negative polarity that possesses inverse-complementary 3′ and 5′ termini, do not possess a 5′ cap, are not polyadenylated, and are not covalently linked to a protein.[39] Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 kb long and contain seven genes in the order 3′-UTRNPVP35VP40GPVP30VP24L5′-UTR.[40] The genomes of the two different marburgviruses (MARV and RAVV) differ in sequence.

Structure[edit]

CryoEM reconstruction of a section of the Marburg virus nucleocapsid. EMDB entry EMD-1986[41]

Like all filoviruses, marburgvirions are filamentous particles that may appear in the shape of a shepherd’s crook or in the shape of a “U” or a “6”, and they may be coiled, toroid, or branched.[40] Marburgvirions are generally 80 nm in width, but vary somewhat in length. In general, the median particle length of marburgviruses ranges from 795–828 nm (in contrast to ebolavirions, whose median particle length was measured to be 974–1,086 nm ), but particles as long as 14,000 nm have been detected in tissue culture.[42] Marburgvirions consist of seven structural proteins. At the center is the helical ribonucleocapsid, which consists of the genomic RNA wrapped around a polymer of nucleoproteins (NP). Associated with the ribonucleoprotein is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) with the polymerase cofactor (VP35) and a transcription activator (VP30). The ribonucleoprotein is embedded in a matrix, formed by the major (VP40) and minor (VP24) matrix proteins. These particles are surrounded by a lipid membrane derived from the host cell membrane. The membrane anchors a glycoprotein (GP1,2) that projects 7 to 10 nm spikes away from its surface. While nearly identical to ebolavirions in structure, marburgvirions are antigenically distinct.

Entry[edit]

Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) appears to be essential for Ebola and Marburg virus infection. Two independent studies reported in the same issue of Nature (journal) showed that Ebola virus cell entry and replication requires the cholesterol transporter protein NPC1.[43][44] When cells from patients lacking NPC1 were exposed to Ebola virus in the laboratory, the cells survived and appeared immune to the virus, further indicating that Ebola relies on NPC1 to enter cells. This might imply that genetic mutations in the NPC1 gene in humans could make some people resistant to one of the deadliest known viruses affecting humans. The same studies described similar results with Ebola’s cousin in the filovirus group, Marburg virus, showing that it too needs NPC1 to enter cells.[43][44] Furthermore, NPC1 was shown to be critical to filovirus entry because it mediates infection by binding directly to the viral envelope glycoprotein.[44] A later study confirmed the findings that NPC1 is a critical filovirus receptor that mediates infection by binding directly to the viral envelope glycoprotein and that the second lysosomal domain of NPC1 mediates this binding.[45]

In one of the original studies, a small molecule was shown to inhibit Ebola virus infection by preventing the virus glycoprotein from binding to NPC1.[44][46] In the other study, mice that were heterozygous for NPC1 were shown to be protected from lethal challenge with mouse adapted Ebola virus.[43] Together, these studies suggest NPC1 may be potential therapeutic target for an Ebola anti-viral drug.

Replication[edit]

The marburg virus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion envelope with cellular membranes and the concomitant release of the virus nucleocapsid into the cytosol. The virus RdRp partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-stranded mRNAs, which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. Marburgvirus L binds to a single promoter located at the 3′ end of the genome. Transcription either terminates after a gene or continues to the next gene downstream. This means that genes close to the 3′ end of the genome are transcribed in the greatest abundance, whereas those toward the 5′ end are least likely to be transcribed. The gene order is therefore a simple but effective form of transcriptional regulation. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication results in full-length, positive-stranded antigenomes that are in turn transcribed into negative-stranded virus progeny genome copies. Newly synthesized structural proteins and genomes self-assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane they bud from. The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle.[8]

Ecology[edit]

In 2009, the successful isolation of infectious MARV was reported from caught healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus).[35] This isolation, together with the isolation of infectious RAVV,[35] strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses. Further studies are necessary to establish whether Egyptian rousettes are the actual hosts of MARV and RAVV or whether they get infected via contact with another animal and therefore serve only as intermediate hosts. Recently the first experimental infection study of Rousettus aegyptiacus with MARV provided further insight into the possible involvement of these bats in MARV ecology.[47] Experimentally infected bats developed relatively low viremia lasting at least 5 days, but remained healthy and didn’t develop any notable gross pathology. The virus also replicated to high titers in major organs (liver and spleen), and organs that might possibly be involved in virus transmission (lung, intestine, reproductive organ, salivary gland, kidney, bladder and mammary gland). The relatively long period of viremia noted in this experiment could possibly also facilitate mechanical transmission by blood sucking arthropods or infection of susceptible vertebrate hosts by direct contact with infected blood.

Weaponization[edit]

The Soviet Union had an extensive offensive and defensive biological weapons program that included MARV.[48] At least three Soviet research institutes had MARV research programs during offensive times: the Virology Center of the Scientific-Research Institute for Microbiology in Zagorsk (today Sergiev Posad), the Scientific-Production Association “Vektor” (today the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology “Vektor”) in Koltsovo, and the Irkutsk Scientific-Research Anti-Plague Institute of Siberia and the Far East in Irkutsk. As most performed research was highly classified, it remains unclear how successful the MARV program was. However, Soviet defector Ken Alibek claimed that a weapon filled with MARV was tested at the Stepnogorsk Scientific Experimental and Production Base in Stepnogorsk, Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (today Kazakhstan),[48] suggesting that the development of a MARV biological weapon had reached advanced stages. Independent confirmation for this claim is lacking. At least one laboratory accident with MARV, resulting in the death of Koltsovo researcher Nikolai Ustinov, occurred during offensive times in the Soviet Union and was first described in detail by Alibek.[48] After the end of the Soviet Union, MARV research continued in all three institutes.[citation needed]

Vaccine research[edit]

In 2009, expanded clinical trials of an Ebola and Marburg vaccine began in Africa. No vaccine to date has been approved for use in the US.